संस्कृत के तकनीकी शब्द

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Glossary
Sanskrit Technical Terms

Terms and definitions collated from the following sources:

Plofker, K. 2009. Mathematics in India. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Sarasvati Amma, T. A. 1979. Geometry in Ancient and Medieval India. Delhi: Motilal Barnarsidass.
Somayaji, D. A. 1971. A Critical Study of the Ancient Hindu Astronomy in the light and language of the modern. Dharwar: Karnataka University.
Subbarayappa, B. V. and K. V. Sarma. 1985. Indian Astronomy: A Sourcebook. Bombay: Nehru Centre.

आबाधा (ābādhā) (or avabādhā, avadhā, abadhā, badhā)

Segment of the base of triangle produced by the altitude on it; the projection of any slanting side on the horizontal

अधिदिन (adhidina)

Intercalary day

अधिमास(क) (adhimāsa(ka))

Intercalary month; the intercalary months denote the excess the lunar (synodic) months over the solar months and thus the intercalary months in a yuga are the lunar months minus the solar months in the yuga

अधिमासशेष (adhimāsaśeṡa)

Residue relating to the intercalary month, adhimāsa

अधिवर्ष (adhivarṡa)

Twelve intercalary months

अग्रा (agrā)

Amplitude at rising i.e., the arc of the celestial horizon lying between the east point where the heavenly body concerned rises; or the R sine thereof (sometimes called agrājyā), which is equal to the distance between the east-west line and the rising-setting of the heavenly body concerned

अहर्गण (ahargaṇa)

1. The number of days accumulated between a given epoch date and some desired date. 2. The number of mean civil days elapsed since the beginning of Kaliyuga (or any other epoch)

अहोरात्र (ahorātra)

1. A day and night, a nychthemeron. 2. The day radius i.e., the radius of the diurnal circle

अहोरात्रार्धविष्कम्भ (ahorātrārdhaviṣkambha)

Semi-diameter of the diurnal circle (of a heavenly body, particularly the Sun) i.e., the day radius.

अहोरात्रासु (ahorātrāsu)

The number of asus in a day and night i.e., 21600

अहोरात्रवृत्त (ahorātravṛtta)

Diurnal circle

अक्षांश (akṡāṃśa)

Local latitude in degrees

अक्ष (akṣa)

Latitude - The term akṣa is an abbreviation of the complete term, akṣonnati, meaning the inclination of the Earth's axis to the plane of the celestial horizon, i.e., the latitude of the place

आक्षदृक्कर्म (ākṣadṛkkarma)

Visibility correction due to local latitude

अक्षजीवा (akṣajīvā)

R sine of latitude

अक्षज्या (akṣajyā)

R sine of latitude

अक्ष्णयारज्जु (akṣṇayārajju)

The diagonal chord of rectangle or a square

अमावस्या (amāvasyā)

Day of conjunction of Sun and Moon i.e., New Moon day

अंश (aṃśa)

1. Degree. 2. Part. 3. An upper vertex of a quadrilateral.

अनादेश्यग्रहण (anādeśyagrahaṇa)

The eclipse that are not to be predicted

अङ्गुल (aṅgula)

1. Digit, as a unit of linear measure (finger-breadth). 2. Unit of length, 1/24th of a cubit

अन्त्यज्या (antyajyā)

The current R sine difference, i.e., the R sine difference corresponding to the elementary arc occupied by a planet In Hindu trigonometry, the quadrant of a circle is divided into 24 equal parts called elementary arcs.

अन्त्यफल (antyaphala)

Maximum correction due to the mandocca or śīghrocca

अन्त्यफलज्या (antyaphalajyā)

R sine of the maximum correction

अनुलोम (anuloma)

Direct or anticlockwise

अनुष्टुभ (anuṣṭubha)

A Sanskrit verse meter consisting of four quarter-verses of eight syllables each

अपक्रम (apakrama)

1. Greatest declination. 2. Declination

अपक्रममण्डल (apakramamaṇḍala)

Ecliptic

अपम (apama)

Declination

अपमण्डल (apamaṇḍala)

Ecliptic

अर्ध (ardha)

Half

अर्धज्या (ardhajyā)

R sine

अर्काग्रा (arkāgrā)

Sun's amplitude at rising, or the R sine thereof

असकृत्कर्म (asakṛtkarma)

Method of successive approximations

असवः (asavaḥ)

Asus of the right ascension or the time in the asus of rising at the equator

अश्वयुक् (aśvayuk)

Month of Aśvina

असित (asita)

1. asita pakṣa i.e., the dark half of a lunar (synodic) month. 2. The measure of the unilluminated part of the Moon

अस्त (asta)

The setting of a heavenly body

अस्तलग्न (astalagna)

The setting point of the ecliptic

अस्तमय (astamaya)

Diurnal or heliacal setting

अस्तमयोदयसूत्र (astamayodayasūtra)

R sine setting line

असु (asu)

A unit of time equal to four sidereal seconds

अवमादिन (avamādina)

Omitted lunar days or omitted tithis

अवमरात्र (avamarātra)

Omitted lunar days or omitted tithis

अवमशेष (avamaśeṡa)

Residue of the omitted lunar days or omitted tithis

अवनति (avanati)

Moon's true latitude as corrected for parallax

अविशेषकलाकर्ण (aviśeṣakalākarṇa)

The distance (lit., hypotenuse) of a planet measured in minutes and obtained by the method of successive approximations

आयाम (āyāma)

Breadth of an object; sometimes, length as opposed to breadth

अयनांश (ayanāṃśa)

Arc of the ecliptic intercepted between the vernal equinox and the zero point (as set by the Indian tradition)

अयन (ayana)

Northward or southward motion of a planet

आयनदृक्कर्म (āyanadṛkkarma)

Visibility correction due to ecliptic longitude

अयत (ayata)

Rectangle

अयतचतुर्भुज (ayatacaturbhuja)

Rectangle

अयतवृत्त (ayatavṛtta)

Ellipse

बाहु (bāhu)

1. The base of a right angled triangle. 2. The bāhu (or bhūja) corresponding to a planet's anomaly or to any arc/angle

बाहुफल (bāhuphala)

Correction due to the mandocca or śigrocca of a planet

बाण (bāṇa)

1. Arrow. 2. Height of an arc or segment of a circle

बव (bava)

The name of the five movable karaṇa, the karaṇa being one of the five important elements of the Hindu calendar

(bha)

1. Asterism. 2. Sign

भभ्रम (bhabhrama)

Revolutions of fixed stars

भचक्र (bhacakra)

Circle of the asterisms

भाग (bhāga)

1. Degree. 2. Part

भगण (bhagaṇa)

The revolution number of a planet, i.e., the number of revolutions that a planet performs around the Earth in a certain period

भगोल (bhagola)

Sphere of asterisms, with its centre at the Earth's centre

भपञ्जर (bhapañjara)

Circle of the asterisms

भपरिणाह (bhapariṇāha)

Circumference of the circle of the asterisms

भेद (bheda)

Occultation of a star

भिन्नदिक्क (bhinnadikka)

Unlike direction

भोग (bhoga)

Motion

भोग्यकाल (bhogyakāla)

Time to pass or expend

भोग्यखण्ड (bhogyakhaṇḍa)

Tabular difference of R sine, etc. to be passed in the meridian

भू (bhū)

1. Base of a triangle. 2. Earth

भूच्छाया (bhūcchāyā)

Earth's shadow

भूदिन (bhūdina)

Civil days or Terrestrial days

भूदिवस (bhūdivasa)

Civil days or Terrestrial days

भूगोल (bhūgola)

Sphere of the Earth

भूगोलविष्कम्भ (bhūgolaviṣkambha)

Diameter of the Earth

भुज (bhuja)

1. Longitude. 2. Base of a triangle

भुजा (bhujā)

Lateral side of a right angled triangle

भुजाज्या (bhujājyā)

The R sine of bhuja (bhujā or bāhu)

भुजान्तर (bhujāntara)

Correction for the equation of time due to the eccentricity of the ecliptic

भुजाफल (bhujāphala)

Correction due to the mandocca or śigrocca of a planet

भूज्या (bhūjyā)

Earth-sine. The distance between the rising-setting line and the line joining the points of intersection of the diurnal circle and the six o'clock circle, or the R sine thereof

भुक्तकाल (bhuktakāla)

Elapsed time

भुक्ति (bhukti)

Motion or daily motion

भुक्तिविशेष (bhuktiviśeṣa)

Motion differences

भुक्तियोग (bhuktiyoga)

Sum of daily motions

भूमि (bhūmi)

1. Base of a triangle. 2. Earth

भूताराग्रहविवर (bhūtārāgrahavivara)

The distance between Earth and a star planet

बीज (bīja)

1. Algebra. 2. A conversion constant to adjust astronomical parameters; (lit., seed)

बिम्ब (bimba)

Disc or orb of a planet

ब्रह्मदिवस (brahmadivasa)

A day of Brahmā, a kalpa

चैत्र (caitra)

The name of the first month of the year

चक्र (cakra)

1. Circle. 2. Twelve signs or 360°

चक्रलिप्ता (cakraliptā)

The number of minutes of arc in a circle, i.e., 21600

चक्रार्ध (cakrārdha)

Half of a circle, i.e., 180°

चक्रवालवृत्त (cakravālavṛtta)

Annulus

चलकेन्द्र (calakendra)

The longitude of the planet's śīghrocca i.e., the apex of fastest motion, minus the longitude of the planet

चलकेन्द्रफल (calakendraphala)

Correction due to the planet's śīghrocca

चलोच (caloca)

Apex of fastest motion.

चन्द्रभगण (candrabhagaṇa)

Revolutions of the Moon

चन्द्रह (candraha)

Time taken by the Moon to overtake the Sun by 12° beginning from the zero point of the ecliptic (as set by the Indian tradition)

चन्द्रकर्ण (candrakarṇa)

Distance of the Moon from the Earth

चान्द्रमास (सषिमास) (cāndramāsa (saṣimāsa)

Lunar month or Lunation

चान्द्रवर्श (cāndravarśa)

Twelve lunar months

चन्द्रोच्च (candrocca)

Moon's apogee

चाप (cāpa)

Arc

चापभाग (cāpabhāga)

An element of arc of elementary arc, i.e., one of the twenty four equal divisions of a quadrant. The R sine differences for these have been tabulated by Aryābhaṭa।

चापज्यार्ध (ज्या) (cāpajyārdha (jyā))

R sine

चापक्षेत्र (cāpakṣetra)

Segment

चापित (cāpita)

Converted into (or reduced to) the corresponding arc

चर (cara)

Ascensional difference. It is defined by the arc of the celestial equator lying between the six o'clock circle and the hour circle of a heavenly body at rising

चरदल (caradala)

Ascensional difference. It is defined by the arc of the celestial equator lying between the six o'clock circle and the hour circle of a heavenly body at rising

चरजीवार्ध (carajīvārdha)

The R sine of the ascensional difference

चरज्या (carajyā)

The R sine of the ascensional difference

चरफल (caraphala)

Correction due to ascensional difference

चरपाण (carapāṇa)

The asus of ascensional difference

चरसंस्कार (carasaṃskāra)

Latitude correction in the celestial longitude of a planet

चरासु (carāsu)

The asus of ascensional difference

चतुरस्र (caturasra)

Quadrilateral square

चतुष्कोन (catuṣkona)

Quadrilateral

छन्दस् (chandas)

Prosody or poetic metrics. One of the six Vedāṅgas

छाया (chāyā)

1. Shadow. 2. The R sine of the zenith distance

छायाभुज (chāyābhuja)

Length of the perpendicular from the end of the gnomic shadow to the East-West line

छायाकर्ण (chāyākarṇa)

Hypotenuse of the right-angled triangle formed with the gnomon and the gnomonic shadow cast by the Sun, being the other two sides

दक्षिणायन (dakṣiṇāyana)

Sun's southward motion from summer solstice to winter solstice

दण्ड (daṇḍa)

A punctuation mark in the form of a vertical stroke

दर्शनसंस्कार (darśanasaṃskāra)

Visibility corrections. There are three visibility corrections: (a) akṣadṛkkarma which is the measure of the arc of the ecliptic lying between the hour circle and the circle of position of the planet concerned, (b) ayanadṛkkarma which is measured by the arc of the ecliptic lying between the circle of celestial longitude and the hour circle of planet concerned and (c) a correction of 48' to be subtracted from the Moon's longitude or added to it according as the Moon is in the eastern or western hemispheres. These corrections having been applied to the true longitude of a planet, we obtain the longitude of that point of the ecliptic that rises on the local horizon simultaneously with the actual planet

देशन्तर (deśantara)

1. The longitude of a place. It is either the distance of the place from the prime meridian or the difference between the local and standard times. 2. Longitudinal correction in the celestial longitude of a planet

देशन्तरघटी (deśantaraghaṭī)

deśāntara, in ghaṭīs of the difference between the local and standard times

देशान्तरफल (deśāntaraphala)

Correction due to the difference in longitude

धनु (dhanu)

Arc

धनुःकाष्ठ (dhanuḥkāṣṭha)

Arc; (lit., bow-stick)

धनुर्भाग (dhanurbhāga)

The element of arc or elementary arc, i.e., one of the twenty four equal divisions of a quadrant. The R sine differences for these have been tabulated by Aryābhaṭa I

धरा (dharā)

1. Base of a triangle. 2. Earth

धर्म (dharma)

The Hindu doctrine of sacred law or righteousness; the moral and religious duties prescribed for humans

ध्रुव (dhruva)

Pole of the celestial equator

ध्रुवप्रोत (dhruvaprota)

Secondary to the celestial equator

ध्रुवप्रोतवृत्त (dhruvaprotavṛtta)

Declination circle

ध्रुवसूत्र (dhruvasūtra)

Declination circle

ध्रुवयष्टि (dhruvayaṣṭi)

Polar axis

दिक्ज्या (dikjyā)

R sine of the azimuth measured from the East point

दिन (dina)

Day

दिनदलान्त्या (dinadalāntyā)

āntyā at midday

दिनगण (dinagaṇa)

1. The number of days accumulated between a given epoch date and some desired date. 2. The number of mean civil days elapsed since the beginning of Kaliyuga (or any other epoch)

दिनगत (dinagata)

Time of day passed/elapsed

दिनान्तोदयलग्न (dināntodayalagna)

The rising point of the ecliptic at Sunset

दिनार्ध (dinārdha)

Half day

दिनशेष (dinaśeṡa)

Time until sunset

दोर्ज्या (dorjyā)

R sine of longitude

दृग्गति (dṛggati)

Arc of the ecliptic between the Sun or Moon and the celestial ecliptic point or its R sine value

दृग्गतिज्या (dṛggatijyā)

R sine of dṛggati

दृग्गोल (dṛggola)

Visible celestial sphere

दृग्ज्या (dṛgjyā)

R sine of Meridian zenith distance or simply, the R sine of the zenith distance

दृक्ज्या (dṛkjyā)

R sine of the zenith distance in any position

दृक्लम्बन (dṛklambana)

Parallax in zenith distance

दृक्च्गाया (dṛkcgāyā)

Parallax

ऋक्कर्म (ṛkkarma)

Visibility corrections. There are three visibility corrections: (a) akṣadṛkkarma which is the measure of the arc of the ecliptic lying between the hour circle and the circle of position of the planet concerned, (b) ayanadṛkkarma which is measured by the arc of the ecliptic lying between the circle of celestial longitude and the hour circle of planet concerned and (c) a correction of 48' to be subtracted from the Moon's longitude or added to it according as the Moon is in the eastern or western hemispheres. These corrections having been applied to the true longitude of a planet, we obtain the longitude of that point of the ecliptic that rises on the local horizon simultaneously with the actual planet

दृक्क्षेप (dṛkkṣepa)

1. Ecliptic zenith distance or its R sine. Thus, the dṛkkṣepa is the zenith distance of that point of a planet's orbit which is the shortest distance from the zenith. This term is sometimes also used fro the R sine of that zenith distance. 2. The arc measuring on vertical to ecliptic between the zenith and the nonagesimal point

दृक्क्षेपज्या (dṛkkṣepajyā)

The R sine of the dṛkkṣepa

दृक्क्षेपमण्डल (dṛkkṣepamaṇḍala)

1. Vertical circle through the central ecliptic point. 2. Secondary to ecliptic passing through the zenith

दृङ्मण्डल (dṛṅmaṇḍala)

1. Vertical circle. 2. Circle passing through zenith and the planet

द्विसमभुज (dvisamabhuja)

Isosceles triangle

द्युदलशन्कु (dyudalaśanku)

R sine altitude at midday

द्यूगण (dyūgaṇa)

1. The number of days accumulated between a given epoch date and some desired date. 2. The number of mean civil days elapsed since the beginning of Kaliyuga (or any other epoch)

द्युज्या (dyujyā)

1. R cosine of the declination of a celestial body. 2. Radius of diurnal circle

द्युज्यामण्डल (dyujyāmaṇḍala)

Diurnal circle

द्युज्यावृत्त (dyujyāvṛtta)

Diurnal circle

गच्छ (gaccha)

In Jainism, a lineage of teachers and pupils

गणित (gaṇita)

1. Computation, calculation; mathematics in general. 2. The mathematical component of astronomy and astrology

गन्तव्य (gantavya)

To be traversed; to come, succeeding

गत (gata)

Traversed, elapsed, past, preceding

गति (gati)

Motion, generally used in the sense of daily motion of the planets

गत्यन्तर (gatyantara)

Motion-difference

घनभूमध्य (ghanabhūmadhya)

Earth's centre

घनगोल (ghanagola)

Solid sphere

घनफल (ghanaphala)

Volume

घात (ghāta)

Product; multiplication

घातक्षेत्र (ghātakṣetra)

Diagrammatic representation of a multiplication product

घटी (ghaṭī)

A unit of time equal to 24 minutes

घटिका (ghaṭikā (also known as ghaṭī),

1. A time unit equal to one-sixtieth of a day, 24 minutes

गोल (gola)

1. Sphere. 2. Celestial sphere. 3. Hemisphere; northern or southern hemispheres 4. Spherics

गोलयन्त्र (golayantra)

Automatic sphere-model of the bhagola

गोत्र (gotra)

Among Brāhmaṇas, a lineage tracing its descent to one of the legendary sages of Hinduism

ग्रह (graha)

Planet

ग्राहक (grāhaka)

The eclipsing body; the eclipser

ग्राहकार्ध (grāhakārdha)

Half the diameter of the eclipsing body

ग्रहक्षितिज (grahakṣitija)

A great circle whose poles are situated at a planet

ग्रहण (grahaṇa)

Eclipse

ग्रहणमध्य (grahaṇamadhya)

Middle of the Eclipse

ग्राह्य (grāhya)

The eclipsed body

ग्राह्यबिम्ब (grāhyabimba)

The disc of the eclipsed body

ग्राह्यमण्डल (grāhyamaṇḍala)

The centre of the eclipsed body

ग्रास (grāsa)

1. Measure of the eclipse. 2. Erosion by overlapping. 3. Common portion of two intersecting circles; the largest width thereof

गुणक (guṇaka)

Multiplier

गुर्वब्द (gurvabda)

Jovian year

गुर्वक्षर (gurvakṣara)

Long syllable

हरिज (harija)

Horizon

हस्त (hasta)

Cubit, measure of length

हऽय (ha'ya)

(Arabic) Islamic astronomy, particularly its geometric models

होरा (horā)

Unit of time equivalent to 1/24th of one day and night period

हृदय (hṛdaya)

Circum-radius

हृदयरज्जु (hṛdayarajju)

Circum-radius

हृत् (hṛt)

Circum-radius

हृति (hṛti)

Hypotenuse

इल्लम् (illam)

(Malayalam) Among Brāhmaṇas in Kerala, a family residence or estate

इन्दूच्च (indūcca)

The Moon's apogee i.e., the remotest point of the Moon's orbit

इन्दुआत (induāta)

Ascending node of the Moon

इष्ट (iṣṭa)

1. Given, desired or chosen at pleasure. 2. iṣṭagraha i.e., desired or given planet

इष्ठशङ्कु (iṣṭhaśaṅku)

R cosine of the zenith distance of the Sun in any arbitrary position

इषु (iṣu)

1. Arrow. 2. Height of an arc or segment of a circle

जन्य (janya)

Rational right triangle or rectangle from which other rational figures are to be obtained; a figure with rational sides

जातक (jātaka)

Genethlialogy; the practice or study of casting nativity horoscopes

जाति (jāti)

Hereditary social and occupational group, often translated caste

जात्य (jātya)

A rational right-angled triangle or any rectilinear figure with rational sides

जीवा (jīvā)

1. Sine or Chord; (lit. bowstring.) 2. R sine

जिवाभुक्ति (jivābhukti)

True daily motion derived with the help of the table of R sine differences

ज्ञाति (jñāti)

Hereditary social and occupational group, sometimes a subdivision of jāti and sometimes synonymous with it

जूक (jūka)

Sign Libra

ज्या (jyā)

1. Sine or Chord; (lit. bowstring.) 2. R sine (Radius × Sine). The R sine difference corresponding to the twenty four equal divisions of a quadrant

ज्यार्ध (ज्या) (jyārdha (jyā))

R sine

ज्योतिष (jyotiṣa)

Astronomy and astrology. One of the six Vedāṅgas

कदम्ब (kadamba)

Pole of the ecliptic

कदम्बप्रत (kadambaprata)

Secondary to the ecliptic

कदम्बसूत्र (kadambasūtra)

Secondary to the ecliptic

काह (kāha)

A day of Brahmā known as a Kalpa

कक्ष्या (kakṣyā)

Orbit

कक्ष्यामण्डल (kakṣyāmaṇḍala (also known as kakṣavṛtta)

Mean orbit of planet, deferent of concentric

कला (kalā)

A time unit equal to one-sixtieth of a muhūrta. 2. In the Jyotiṣa vedāṅga, a time unit equal to 201/20 of a ghaṭikā. 3. Minute of Arc

कालांश (kālāṃśa)

Degrees indicating time

कलार्धजा (kalārdhajā)

The 24 R sine differences in terms of minutes

कलियुग (Kaliyuga)

The last of the four ages in a mahāyuga, equal to 432,000 years. Indian cosmology holds that the current Kaliyuga began on 18 February 3102 BCE

कल्प (kalpa)

1. A lifetime of the universe, conventionally equal to 4,320,000,000 years. 2. A period of 1000 yugas. 3.The Vedāṅga of ritual practice

करण (karaṇa)

1. A handbook for astronomical computation or astronomical manual. 2. A time unit equal to half a tithi or the time during which the Moon gains 6° over the Sun 3. The name of one of the five principal elements of the Hindu calendar

करणी (karaṇī)

1. A surd or non-square number; (lit., making). 2. The side of a rectilinear figure; the side of a square or rectangle. 3. The maker or producer of the required area.

कर्ण (karṇa)

1. Hypotenuse, lateral side. 2. Distance of planet from Earth

कटपयादि (kaṭapayādi)

An alphanumeric notational system for verbally representing numerals

केन्द्र (kendra)

1. Anomaly. The kendra is of two kinds, mandakendra and śīghrakendra. The mandakendra of a planet is equal to the 'longitude of the planet minus the longitude of the planet's mandocca i.e., the planet's apogee', where as the śīghrakendra of a planet is equal to the longitude of the planet's śīghrocca i.e., the apex of fastest motion, minus the longitude of the planet. 2. Centre

(kha)

1. Void. 2. Sky

खगोल (khagola)

Sphere of the sky

खमध्य (khamadhya)

Middle of the sky

खण्डग्रहण (khaṇḍagrahaṇa)

Partial eclipse

खातफल (khātaphala)

Volume of a pit or excavation

कोण (koṇa)

Angle, corner

कोणमण्डल (कोणवृत्त) (koṇamaṇḍala (koṇavṛtta)

Intermediary vertical circle

कोणशन्कु (koṇaśanku)

1. R cosine of the zenith distance of the Sun when the azimuth measured from the East-West line is 45°. 2. R sine of the altitude from the intermediary vertical circle, koṇavṛtta

कोणशन्कुतल (koṇaśankutala)

Base of the koṇaśanku

कोष्ठक (koṣṭhaka)

A set of tables for astronomical computation

कोटि (कोटी) (koṭi (koṭī))

1. Vertical/perpendicular side of right-angled triangle. 2. Complement of the bhuja

कोटिज्या (koṭijyā)

Cosine, R cosine

कोटिफल (koṭiphala)

The result obtained by multiplying the R sine of the koṭi due to the planet's kendra by the tabulated epicycle and dividing the product by 80

क्रम (krama)

Serial order

क्रमज्या (kramajyā)

1. Sine or Chord; (lit. bowstring.) 2. R sine (Radius × Sine). The R sine difference corresponding to the twenty four equal divisions of a quadrant

क्रान्ति (krānti)

Declination

क्रान्तिज्या (krāntijyā)

R sine of the declination of a celestial body

क्रान्तिमण्डल (krāntimaṇḍala)

Ecliptic

क्रिय (kriya)

The zodiacal sign, Aries

कृति (kṛti)

Square

कृत्तिका (kṛttikā)

The nakṣatra of Kṛttikā

क्षयमास (अंहस्पतिमास) (kṣayamāsa (aṃhaspatimāsa)

A candramāsa lost in the process of intercalation

क्षययह (उनह) (kṣayayaha (unaha))

A lost tithi or a tithi containing two consecutive Sunrises

क्षेप (kṣepa)

1. Additive or subtractive quantity/correction. 2. Celestial latitude, see under vikṣepa

क्षेत्र (kṣetra)

Closed figure

क्षेत्रगणित (kṣetragaṇita)

Geometry

क्षेत्रफल (kṣetraphala)

Area

क्षिप्ति (kṣipti)

Celestial latitude

क्षिप्तिलिप्तिकाः (kṣiptiliptikāḥ)

The minutes of the celestial latitude

क्षितिच्छाया (kṣiticchāyā)

Earth's shadow

क्षितिज (kṣitija)

1. Mars. 2. Horizon (kṣitija vṛtta)

क्षितिजा (kṣitijā (also known as kṣitijyā)

Earth-sine. The distance between the rising-setting line and the line joining the points of intersection of the diurnal circle and the six o'clock circle, or the R sine thereof

कु (ku)

1. Earth. 2. Base of a triangle

कूदिन (kūdina)

Civil days or Terrestrial days

कुज (kuja)

Mars

कुज्या (kujyā)

Earth-sine. The distance between the rising-setting line and the line joining the points of intersection of the diurnal circle and the six o'clock circle, or the R sine thereof

कुवायु (kuvāyu)

Terrestrial wind

क्वावर्त (kvāvarta)

Rotations of the Earth

लघुज्या (laghujyā)

Calculations of R sine of arcs of 10°

लघ्वहर्गण (laghvahargaṇa)

Civil days between the end of one solar year and any date in the current year

लग्न (lagna)

The rising point of the ecliptic i.e., orient ecliptic point.

लक्षज्या (lakṣajyā)

Sine, R sine when R = 120 units

लम्बज्या (lambajyā)

The R sine of the colatitude

लम्ब(क) (lamba(ka))

1. The R cosine of the colatitude 2. perpendicular/altitude/vertical of a figure

लम्बकगुण (lambakaguṇa)

The R sine of the colatitude

लम्बांश (lambāṃśa)

Colatitude in degrees

लम्बन (lambana)

Parallax in longitude; or, in particular, the difference between the parallaxes in longitude of the Sun and the Moon

लङ्का (laṅkā)

The hypothetical place on the equator where the meridian of Ujjain intersects it, i.e., place with 0° longitude and 0° latitude

लङ्कोदय (laṅkodaya)

Time of rising of the Signs at Laṅkā, i.e., right ascensions of the Signs

लिप्त (lipta)

Minute of an arc

लिप्ताशेष (liptāśeṣa)

The residue of the minute

मध्य (madhya)

1. Centre, middle. 2. Mean. 3. Middle term in a series. 4. Zenith distance of ecliptic point

मध्यच्छाया (madhyacchāyā)

The midday shadow of the gnomon

मध्यग्रह (madhyagraha)

Mean planet

मध्याह्नच्छायाकर्ण (madhyāhnacchāyākarṇa)

Hypotenuse of right-angled triangle, two sides of which are the gnomon and the midday shadow

मध्यजिवा (madhyajivā)

The R sine of the zenith distance of the meridian ecliptic point

मध्यज्या (madhyajyā)

Meridian sine, i.e., R sine of the zenith distance of the meridian ecliptic point

मध्यलग्न (madhyalagna)

Meridian ecliptic point

मध्यलग्नशन्कु (madhyalagnaśanku)

R cosine of the meridian ecliptic point

मध्याभुक्तिः (madhyābhuktiḥ)

Mean daily motion

मध्यमलम्बन (madhyamalambana)

1. Parallax in zenith distance. 2. Mean Altitude

मध्यर्क्रान्ति (madhyarkrānti)

Declination of the place of a planet on the ecliptic

मध्यमसवन (madhyamasavana)

Mean solar day

मध्यस्फुट (madhyasphuṭa)

True mean motion of a planet

महायुग (mahāyuga)

A cosmological time span equal to 4,320,000 years

मही (mahī)

1. Base of a triangle. 2. Earth

मैत्र (maitra)

The nakṣatra, Anurādhā which is presided over by Mitra

मकर (makara)

Capricorn

माणैक्यार्ध (māṇaikyārdha)

Sum of the radii of the eclipsing and the eclipsed bodies

मन्द (manda)

1. The inequality in a planet's orbital motion that depends on its position with respect to the stars, analogous to zodiacal anomaly. (lit., slow). 2. Slow, apex of slow motion

मन्दगतिफल (mandagatiphala)

Correction to the mean motion of a planet

मन्दकर्ण (mandakarṇa)

Hypotenuse associated with mandocca

मन्दकेन्द्रज्या (mandakendrajyā)

R sine of the mandakendra

मण्डल (maṇḍala)

Circle, revolution

मन्दांश (mandāṃśa)

The longitudes of the apogees of the planets in terms of degrees

मन्दान्त्यफल (mandāntyaphala)

Maximum correction due to mandocca

मन्दान्त्यफलज्या (mandāntyaphalajyā)

R sine of the maximum correction due to mandocca

मन्दपरिधि (mandaparidhi)

Circumference of the manda epicycle

मन्दफल (mandaphala)

Equation of the centre

मन्दफलज्या (mandaphalajyā)

R sine of the equation of the centre

मन्दस्पष्टगति (mandaspaṣṭagati)

Mean motion of a planet corrected by mandagatiphala

मन्दस्फुट (mandasphuṭa)

1. Planet's longitude corrected for the equation of centre. 2. Mean motion of a planet corrected by mandagatiphala

मन्दस्फुटगति (mandasphuṭagati)

Mean motion of a planet corrected by mandagatiphala

मन्दवृत्त (mandavṛtta)

manda epicycle

मन्दोच्च (mandocca)

Apogee or aphelion of a planet

मन्दोच्चकर्ण (mandoccakarṇa)

Hypotenuse associated with mandocca

मन्दोच्चफल (mandoccaphala)

Correction due to planet's mandocca

मनु (manu)

A period of time equal to 72 yugas

मन्वन्तर (manvantara)

A cosmological time span equal to seventy-one mahāyugas or 306,720,000 years

मास (māsa)

Month

मेष (meṣa)

Sign Aries

मीमांसा (mīmāṃsā)

The Vedāṅga of philosophical investigation of scripture; a division of Indian philosophy

मीन (mīna)

Sign Pisces

मोक्ष (mokṣa)

The separation of the eclipsed body after an eclipse, the last contact, or the end of the eclipse

मृग (mṛga)

Sign Capricorn

मुहूर्त (muhūrta)

A time unit equal to one-thirtieth of a day

मुख (mukha)

Face, top-side of an object or figure with more than three sides, especially the top or shorter/parallel side of a trapezium

मूल (mūla)

1. Square root. 2. Base text (on which an expository commentary is written)

नभ (nabha)

Zero

नाडी (nāḍī)

Unit of time equivalent to 24 minutes

नाडीवलय (nāḍīvalaya)

Celestial equator

नागरी (nāgarī (also called deva-nāgarī)

The name of the script most commonly used to write Sanskrit

नक्षत्र (nakṣatra)

1. One of the twenty-seven or twenty-eight constellations that lie in the orbital path of the Moon. 2. An arc of the ecliptic with length 13° 20' , associated with one of the above mentioned lunar constellations. 3. An interval of time during which the Moon traverses an arc of 13° 20'. 4. Asterism

नक्षत्रदिवस (नक्षत्रदिन) (nakṣatradivasa (nakṣatradina)

Sidereal day

नक्षत्रमास (nakṣatramāsa)

Sidereal month

नर (nara)

Gnomon

नतभाग (natabhāga)

Meridian zenith distance

नतभागज्या (नतज्या) (natabhāgajyā (natajyā) :R sine of zenith distance नतज्या (natajyā)

R sine of zenith distance

नतकाल (natakāla)

Hour-angle measured in time

नतकालज्या (natakālajyā)

R sine of hour-angle

नतकालकोटिज्या (natakālakoṭijyā)

R cosine of hour-angle

नतकालेत्क्रमज्या (natakāletkramajyā)

R versed sine of hour-angle

नतांश (natāṃśa)

Zenith distance

नति (nati)

1. Meridian zenith distance or the R sine of that. 2. Difference between the parallaxes in latitude of the Sun and the Moon i.e., latitudinal parallax

नेमि (nemi)

Part of an annulus

नीच (nīca)

Perigee of epicycle or the the eccentric of the planet

नीचोच्चवृत्त (nīcoccavṛtta)

Epicycle

नीचोच्चरेखा (nīcoccarekhā)

Line of apse

नीचोच्चवृत्त (nīcoccavṛtta)

Epicycle

निरक्षजाः (असवः) (nirakṣajāḥ (asavaḥ))

Asus of the right ascension or the time in the asus of rising at the equator

निर्गम (nirgama)

Annulus

पाद (pāda)

1. A quarter-verse; (lit., foot.) 2. Ascending Node

पदभा (padabhā)

A gnomon shadow measured in units of feet; (lit., foot-shadow)

पक्ष (pakṣa)

1. A school or faction. 2. One side of an equation; (lit., wing or side.) 3. Lunar fortnight, i.e., the period from new Moon to full Moon or from full Moon to new Moon. The period from new Moon to full Moon is called the light fortnight (or the light half of a lunar month - śuklapakṣa) and that from full Moon to new Moon is called the dark fortnight (or the dark half of a lunar month - kṛṣṇapakṣa)

पल (pala)

1. Latitude. 2. Unit of time equivalent to 24 seconds

पलभ (palabha)

Equinoctial shadow of the gnomon at noon

पलज्या (palajyā)

The R sine of the latitude

पलकर्ण (palakarṇa)

Hypotenuse of the right-angled triangle formed with the gnomon and the equinoctial shadow being the other two sides

पञ्चाङ्ग (pañcāṅga)

A yearly calendar tracking the succession of various civil, liturgical, and astronomical time units

परकर्ण (parakarṇa)

Third diameter of a cyclic quadrilateral obtainable by interchanging a pair of adjacent sides

परमक्रान्ति (paramakrānti)

Greatest declination of the Sun, i.e., the obliquity of the ecliptic

परमक्षिप्ति (paramakṣipti)

Greatest celestial latitude of the Moon, i.e., inclination of he Moon's orbit

परमापक्रम (paramāpakrama)

Greatest declination, obliquity of the ecliptic

परमापक्रमगुणः (paramāpakramaguṇaḥ)

The R sine of the Sun's greatest declination

परमापक्रमजीवा (paramāpakramajīvā)

R sine of the greatest declination

परशङ्कु (paraśaṅku (also known as paramaśaṅku)

R sine of the greatest altitude, i.e., R sine of the meridian altitude

परिधि (paridhi)

Circumference

परिलेख (parilekha)

1. Diagram. 2. Projection of eclipse

परिमण्डल (parimaṇḍala)

Ellipse or Circle

परिणाह (pariṇāha)

Periphery, circumference

परिवर्त (parivarta)

Revolution

पार्श्वमानी (pārśvamānī)

1. The lateral side of a quadrilateral or the flank-side measurement. 2. The flank-side measurer

पर्व (parva)

1. Time of conjunction or opposition of the Sun and the Moon. 2. Full Moon or the new Moon tithi. 3. An eclipse of the Sun and the Moon.

पर्वनाडी (parvanāḍī)

The nāḍīs of the full Moon or new Moon tithi (also called parva) which are to elapse at Sunrise on that day. In other words, the time in nāḍīs which is to elapse at Sunrise before the time of conjunction or opposition of the Sun and the Moon

पश्चार्ध (paścārdha)

The western half

पात (pāta)

1. An astrologically significant event when the longitudes of the Sun and Moon add up to 180° or 360° (equivalently 6 or 12 zodiacal signs). 2. The ascending node of a planet's orbit on the ecliptic. 3. The circumference cum in-centre cum ortho-centre of an equilateral triangle

पातभाग (pātabhāga)

The degree of longitude of the ascending node

पातरेखा (pātarekhā)

The perpendiculars on the base and top of a trapezium fro the the point of intersection of its diagonals

पाती (pātī)

Arithmetic; (lit., board - for the dust board on which computations were written out)

पौस्ण (pausṇa)

The nakṣatra, Revatī which is presided over by pūṣā

प्रभा (prabhā)

The shadow of the gnomon

प्राग्लग्न (prāglagna (lagna or prāgvilagna)

Rising point of the ecliptic

प्रग्रहण (pragrahaṇa)

First contact in an eclipse

प्रग्रास (pragrāsa)

The beginning of an eclipse, i.e., the first contact

प्राक्कल्प (prākkalpa)

The eastern hemisphere

प्राक्पश्चिमसुत्र (prākpaścimasutra)

East-West line

प्रक्रिया (prakriyā)

Process

प्राण (prāṇa)

Unit of time equal to four sidereal seconds or one-sixth of a vināḍikā

प्रतिलोम (pratiloma)

Retrograde. A planet is said to be in pratiloma when its motion is retrograde.

प्रतिमण्डल (केन्द्रवृत्त) (pratimaṇḍala (kendravṛtta)

The eccentric circle of a planet

प्रतिपद् (pratipad)

The first tithi of either half of the lunar month

प्रति-वृत्त (prati-vṛtta)

Eccentric circle of a planet

प्रौग (prauga)

Triangle, typically an isosceles triangle. (The fore-part of the shaft of a chariot that is triangular in shape)

प्रवहवायु (pravahavāyu)

Provector wind

पृष्ठफल (prṣṭhaphala)

Surface area

पृष्ठ्या (prṣṭhyā)

Line of symmetry, usually the east-west line

ढ़ुराण (Purāṇa)

A sacred work on cosmology, mythology, and historical legend

पूर्ण (pūrṇa)

Full, complete

पूर्णिमा (pūrṇimā)

Full Moon

पूर्वापरासूत्र (pūrvāparāsūtra)

East-West line

पूर्वापरायत (pūrvāparāyata)

Directed east to west

राहुबिम्ब (rāhubimba)

Diameter of the shadow cone of the Earth at the lunar orbit

रज्जु (rajju)

Perimeter

राशि (rāśi)

Zodiacal sign or 30 °

रवि (ravi)

The Sun

रविभगण (ravibhagaṇa)

Revolutions of the Sun

रविकर्ण (ravikarṇa)

Distance of the Sun from Earth

रविमास (ravimāsa)

Solar month

रविवर्ष (ravivarṣa)

Solar Year

ऋजुभुज (ṛjubhuja)

Rectilinear figure

ऋण (ṛṇa)

Subtracted, negative

ऋतु (ṛtu)

Season

रुण्ड (ruṇḍa)

Breadth (of an annular ring)

रूप (rūpa)

1. Known number; unity; abbr. as rū in algebra

सकृत (sakṛta)

By the application of the rule only once (i.e., without the application of the method of successive approximation)

सम (sama)

North point of the horizon

समबाहु (samabāhu)

Equilateral figure

समचक्रवाल (samacakravāla)

Circle

समचतुर्भुज (samacaturbhuja)

1. Square or Rhombus. 2. Quadrilateral with all four sides equal

समदलकोटि (samadalakoṭi)

Altitude

समकल (samakala)

The planets are said to be samakala when they are either in conjunction or opposition in longitude

समकोष्ठमिति (samakoṣṭhamiti)

Area, a measure equal to unit squares in a figure

समलिप्तेन्दु (samaliptendu)

The longitude of the Moon for the time of opposition or conjunction of the Sun and the Moon

सममण्डल (samamaṇḍala (also known as sama vṛtta)

The prime vertical

समानलम्ब (samānalamba (or samalamba)

A quadrilateral with the altitudes equal; trapezium

समपरिणाह (samapariṇāha)

Circumference of a circle

समप्रोत (samaprota)

Secondary to prime vertical

समरेखा (samarekhā)

The meridian

समशङ्कु (samaśaṅku)

1. R cosine of the zenith distance of the Sun when it is on the prime-vertical. 2. R sine of the altitude from prime vertical

समसूत्र (samasūtra)

Secondary to the prime-vertical

सम्पर्क (samparka)

1. The sum of the diameters of the two bodies in contact. 2. Used in the sense of the sum of the two diameters of the eclipsed and eclipsing bodies

सम्पर्कार्ध (samparkārdha (also known as samparkadala)

Half the sum of the diameters of the eclipsed and eclipsing bodies

सम्पात (sampāta)

Point of intersection

सम्पूर्वापरः शङ्कुः (sampūrvāparaḥ śaṅkuḥ)

The R sine of the prime vertical altitude (of the Sun)

संसर्प (saṃsarpa)

An intercalary month preceding a kṣayamāsa

संस्कृत (saṃskṛta)

Corrected

सन्धि (sandhi)

The inter-space between the foot of an altitude and the foot of the flank-side from whose tip the altitude is drawn, usually in a quadrilateral

सङ्क्रान्ति (saṅkrānti)

1. The moment when the Sun enters a zodiacal constellation (rāśi). 2. Last day of solar month

सपाटचन्द्र (sapāṭacandra)

Longitude of the Moon with respect to the nearer node of the lunar orbit

सपाटसूर्य (sapāṭasūrya)

Longitude of the Sun with respect to the nearer node of the lunar orbit

सार्पमस्तक (sārpamastaka)

Name of an astronomical phenomenon, one of the vyatipātas

सर्वग्रास (sarvagrāsa)

Total eclipse

सौम्य (saumya)

1. North. The northern (hemisphere). 2. Mercury

सौरदिन (sauradina)

Solar day

सौरमास (sauramāsa)

1. Time taken by the Sun to traverse each of the zodiacal constellations (rāśi). 2. Solar month

सौरसंवर्ष (saurasaṃvarṣa)

Solar year

सौरसंवत्सर (saurasaṃvatsara)

Solar year

सौरि (sauri)

Saturn

सवनदिन (savanadina)

Civil days or Terrestrial days

सवनह (savanaha)

Civil days or Terrestrial days

सावनमास (sāvanamāsa)

30 civil days

सव्य (savya)

Clockwise

सायक (sāyaka)

1. Arrow. 2. Height of an arc or segment of a circle

षडश्रि (ṣaḍaśri)

Tetrahedron

शकाब्द (śakābda)

The year of Śaka era

शक्रतारकम् (śakratārakam)

The nakṣatra, Jyeṣṭhā that is presided over by Indra (Śakra)

शङ्कवर्ग (śaṅkavarga)

The distance of the projection of a heavenly body on the plane of the celestial horizon from the rising setting line of the heavenly body

शङ्खवृत्त (śaṅkhavṛtta)

A figure resembling the longitudinal section of a conch-shell

शङ्कु (śaṅku)

1. Gnomon. 2. The R sine of the altitude of a heavenly body

शङ्कुवेध (śaṅkuvedha)

Observations by the gnomon

शर (śara)

1. Arrow. 2. R versed sine. 3. Celestial latitude. 4. Height of an arc or segment of a circle

शशि (śaṣi)

The Moon

शशिदिवस (चान्द्रदिन) (śaṣidivasa (cāndradina)

Lunar day

शास्त्र (śāstra)

Learned discipline, science

शीघ्र (śīghra)

The inequality in a planet's orbital motion that depends on its position with respect to the Sun, analogous to synodic anomaly; (lit., fast)

शीघ्रगतिफल (śīghragatiphala)

Second correction to mean motion of planet

शीघ्रकेन्द्र (śīghrakendra)

The śīghra anomaly

स्हिघ्रकेन्द्रज्या (shighrakendrajyā)

R sine of the śīghra anomaly

स्हिघ्रकेन्द्रकोटिज्या (shighrakendrakoṭijyā)

R cosine of the śīghra anomaly

शीघ्रपरिधि (śīghraparidhi)

Circumference of the śīghra epicycle

शीघ्रफल (śīghraphala)

Second correction to mean longitude

शीघ्रफलज्या (śīghraphalajyā)

R sine of the second correction to mean longitude

शीघ्रशीघ्रोच्च (śīghraśīghrocca)

śīghra epicycle

शीघ्रवृत्त (śīghravṛtta)

śīghra epicycle

शीघ्रोच्च (śīghrocca)

Apex of fastest motion, śīghra apogee

शीघ्रोच्चकर्ण (śīghroccakarṇa (also known as śīghrakarṇa)

It is equal to (R±Rsin(k))2+(Rsin(b))2−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−√ where R=3438′, k is koṭi and b is bhuja due to śīghrakendra

शीघ्रोच्चफल (śīghroccaphala)

Correction due to the planet's śīghrocca

श्रेढीक्षेत्र (śreḍhīkṣetra)

Diagrammatic representation of mathematical series

शृङ्गाटक (śṛṅgāṭaka)

1. Arrow. 2. Height of an arc or segment of a circle

शृङ्गोन्नति (śṛṅgonnati)

1. Triangle. 2. Some form of four-sided figure, tetrahedron

श्रोणि (śroṇi)

A lower vertex of a quadrilateral or triangle

श्रुति (śruti)

Sacred texts ascribed to divine revelation, such as the Vedas; (lit., hearing)

शुद्धि (śuddhi)

1. Gain of the lunar reckoning over the Solar at the beginning of the lunar year. 2. Mean heliocentric position; for superior planets, mean position of the Sun

शुल्ब (śulba)

A measuring cord; ritual geometry for altar construction

शुन्य (śunya)

Void

सिद्धान्त (siddhānta)

Technical treatise; in particular, a comprehensive treatise on astronomy

शीघ्रकेन्द्र (śīghrakendra)

The longitude of the planet's śīghrocca i.e., the apex of fastest motion, minus the longitude of the planet

सित (sita)

1. The measure of the illuminated part of the Moon's disc; the phase of the Moon. 2. The light half of the lunar month (sitapakṣa). 3. Venus

सितमान (sitamāna)

The measure of the illuminated part of the Moon's disc

सितपक्ष (sitapakṣa)

The light or bright half of a lunar month

श्लोक (śloka)

Verse, especially a verse in anuṣṭubha meter

स्मृति (smṛti)

Sacred texts ascribed to human authorship; (lit., remembering)

सोम (soma)

A ritual beverage used in some ancient Vedic sacrifices

स्पर्श (sparśa)

First contact of an eclipse

स्फुट (sphuṭa)

True or corrected

स्फुटभोग (sphuṭabhoga)

True motion

स्फुटभुक्ति (sphuṭabhukti)

True (daily) motion

स्फुटभूपरिधि (sphuṭabhūparidhi)

Circumference of the Earth measure parallel to the equator at a specified latitude

स्फुटग्रह (sphuṭagraha)

True planet

स्फुटक्रान्ति (sphuṭakrānti)

Declination of planet's centre

स्फुटलम्बन (sphuṭalambana)

Parallax in longitude; or, in particular, the difference between the parallaxes in longitude of the Sun and the Moon

स्फुटमध्य (sphuṭamadhya)

1. True mean motion of a planet. 2. The true-mean planet. 3. The true-mean longitude of a planet

स्फुटविक्षेप (sphuṭavikṣepa)

Celestial latitude corrected by parallax

स्फुटवृत्त (sphuṭavṛtta)

True or corrected epicycle

स्फुटयोजनकर्ण (sphuṭayojanakarṇa)

The true distance of a planet in terms of yojanas

स्थित्यर्ध (sthityardha)

Half the duration (of an eclipse)

स्थित्यर्धनाडिका (sthityardhanāḍikā)

Half the duration (of an eclipse) in terms of nāḍīs

स्थूल (sthūla)

Gross, approximate

सूची (sūcī)

The inner, outer or middle diameter of an annular ring

सूचीक्षेत्र (sūcīkṣetra)

1. Triangle got by producing the flanks of a quadrilateral till they meet. 2. The pyramid or cone got by producing the lateral faces of the frustum of a pyramid or cone

सूत्र (sūtra)

A rule or algorithm; (lit., thread)

स्वदेशभोदय (svadeśabhodaya)

Time of rising of the zodiacal signs at the local place, or oblique ascensions of the zodiacal signs

स्वदेशभूमिवृत्त (svadeśabhūmivṛtta)

The local circumference of the Earth, i.e., circumference of the local circle of latitude

स्वदेशाक्ष (svadeśākṣa)

The latitude of the local place

स्वदेशोदय (svadeśodaya)

Time of rising of the zodiacal signs at the local place, or oblique ascensions of the zodiacal signs

ताजिक (tājika)

An Islamic form of horoscopic astrology

तम(स्) (tama(s))

Section of Earth's shadow cone at the Moon's distance

तमोमूर्ति (tamomūrti)

The Moon's ascending node

तमोविष्कम्भ (tamoviṣkambha)

Diameter of shadow, i.e., diameter of the Earth's shadow cone at the Moon's distance

तन्त्र (tantra)

A type of astronomical treatise

ताराग्रह (tārāgraha)

Star planets, i.e., the planets Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus and Saturn

ताराग्रहस् (tārāgrahas)

Planets: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn

तात्कालिक (tātkālika)

momentary, instantaneous; (lit., at that time)

तिर्यण्मानी (tiryaṇmānī)

1. The transverse side of a quadrilateral, the horizontal side. 2. The transverse measurer

तिथि (tithi)

A lunar day, or one-thirtieth of a synodic month

त्रैराशिक (trairāśika)

Rule of three quantities, simple proportion

त्रिभुज (tribhuja)

Triangle

त्रिज्या (trijyā (also known as tribhajyā)

Radius or 3438', literally the R sine of the three signs (or an arc of 90°)

त्रिसम (trisama)

1. Equilateral triangle. 2. Trapezium with three equal sides

त्र्यस्र (tryasra)

Triangle, more specifically a right-triangle

तुला (tulā)

Sign Libra

तुल्यचतुर्भुज (tulyacaturbhuja)

1. Square or Rhombus. 2. Quadrilateral with all four sides equal

उभयतःप्रौग (ubhayataḥprauga)

Double Isosceles triangle; rhombus

उच्च (ucca)

The ucca of a planet is of two kinds - (a) mandocca i.e., the apex of slowest motion and (b) śīghrocca i.e., the apex of fastest motion

उच्चनीचपरिवर्त (uccanīcaparivarta)

Anomalistic or synodic revolutions

उच्चनीचवृत्त (uccanīcavṛtta)

Epicycle

उच्छ्रय (ucchraya (or ucchriti)

Height of an object

उदगयन (उत्तरायण) (udagayana (uttarāyaṇa)

Sun's northward journey from winter solstice to summer solstice

उदय (udaya)

1. The rising of a planet on the eastern horizon. 2. Heliacal rising of a planet. 3. udaya lagna i.e., the rising point of the ecliptic. 4. Addition, as in kṣayodayau i.e., subtraction and addition

उदयजीवा (udayajīvā (also known as udayajyā)

R sine amplitude of the rising point of the ecliptic

उदयास्तमय (udayāstamaya)

Heliacal rising and setting

उदयास्त-सुत्र (udayāsta-sutra)

1. Straight line joining the rising and setting points of a celestial body on a horizontal diameter. 2. Line of intersection of diurnal circle and horizon

उदग्गोल (udaggola)

Northern Hemisphere

उदिचि (udici)

North-South line

उन्मण्डल (unmaṇḍala)

1. Equatorial horizon. 2. Six o'clock circle

उन्नतांश (unnatāṃśa)

Complement of the zenith distance, or the R sine of that called unnatāṃśajyā

उन्नतकाल (unnatakāla)

1. Time elapsed after the rising of a celestial body. 2. Distance from the horizon in time

उपवृत्त (upavṛtta)

A small circle parallel to the prime-vertical

उर्वी (urvī)

1. Base of a triangle. 2. Earth

उत्क्रमण (utkramaṇa (also known as utkramajyā)

R versed sine

उत्सेध (utsedha)

Height of an object

उत्तरायण (uttarāyaṇa)

Sun's northward journey from winter solstice to summer solstice

उत्वृत्त (utvṛtta)

Equatorial horizon

उत्वृत्तशङ्कु (utvṛttaśaṅku)

R cosine of the zenith distance of the Sun as seen from a place on the equatorial horizon

वैधृत (vaidhṛta)

An astronomical phenomenon when the sum of the (true) longitudes of the Sun and the Moon amounts to a circle (i.e., 360° or 12 signs)

वैष्णव (vaiṣṇava)

The nakṣatra, Śravaṇa that is presided over by Viṣṇu

वैश्व (vaiśva)

The nakṣatra, Uttarāṣāḍha that is presided over by Viśve Devāḥ

वज्रभास (vajrabhāsa)

Cross-multiplication

वक्र (vakra)

Retrograde motion

वाक्य (vākya)

A celestial longitude value encoded in alphanumeric notation; (lit., sentence)

वलन (valana)

(lit. deflection) valana relates to an eclipsed body. It is the angle subtended at the body by the arc joining the north point of the celestial horizon and the north pole of the ecliptic (i.e., the angle between the circle of position and the circle of celestial longitude of the eclipsed body). valana is generally divided into two components: 1. akṣavalana and 2. ayanavalana. The akṣavalana is the angle subtended at the body by the arc joining the north point of the celestial horizon and the north pole of the celestial equator (i.e., the angle between the circle of position and the hour circle of the eclipsed body). The ayanavalana is the angle subtended at the body by the arc joining the north poles of the equator and the ecliptic (i.e., the angle between the hour circle and the circle of celestial longitudes of the eclipsed body). The valana is also defined as follows: The Great circle of which the eclipsed body is the pole is called the horizon of the eclipsed body. Suppose that the prime vertical, equator and the ecliptic intersect the horizon of the eclipsed body at the points A, B, and C respectively, towards the east of the eclipsed body. The the arc AB is called the akṣavalana, the arc BC is called ayanavalana, and the arc AC is called valana. valana is also called spaṣṭavalana

वलयाकारक्षेत्र (valayākārakṣetra)

Figure shaped like an annulus or ring

वार (vāra)

Day

वर्ग (varga)

1. Square, in arithmetic or geometry; abbr. as va in algebra. 2. The first twenty-five consonants in the Sanskrit alphabet

वर्ण (varṇa)

lit., colour. 1. One of the four major divisions of humanity in Hinduism. 2. A way of designating unknown quantities in algebra; different unknowns are referred to by the names of different colours

वर्षाधिप (varṣādhipa)

Lord of the year

वासव (vāsava)

The nakṣatra, Dhaniṣṭhā which is presided over by Vasu

वसुधा (vasudhā)

1. Base of a triangle. 2. Earth

वेदाङ्ग (Vedāṅga)

One of the six limbs, or supporting disciplines, of the sacred Vedas

वेध (vedha)

Depth

वेग (vega)

Velocity

विदिक्क (vidikka)

Contrary direction

विक्षेप (vikṣepa)

Celestial latitude

विक्षेपांष (vikṣepāṁṣa)

The degrees of celestial latitude

विक्षेपज्या (vikṣepajyā)

The R sine of celestial latitude

विक्षेपलिप्तिका (vikṣepaliptikā)

The minutes of celestial latitude

विक्षेपमण्डल (vikṣepamaṇḍala)

Orbit of the planet

विक्षिप्ति (vikṣipti)

Celestial latitude

विलिप्ता (viliptā (also known as viliptikā)

Second of an arc

विलोम (viloma)

Retrograde

विलोमविवर (vilomavivara)

Difference of two planets, one direct and the other retrograde

विमर्दार्ध (vimardārdha)

Half of the duration of totality of an an eclipse

विंदफल (viṃdaphala)

Volume

विनाडिका (vināḍikā)

A unit of time, being one-sixth of a ghaṭikā equivalent to 24 seconds

विन्मण्डल (vinmaṇḍala)

Orbit of planet

विपल (vipala)

A unit of time, being one-sixth of a ghaṭikā equivalent to 24 seconds

विंदफल (viṃdaphala)

Volume

विशख (viśakha)

The nakṡatra, Visākhā

विषम (viṣama)

A quadrilateral with unequal sides; a cyclic quadrilateral

विषमचतुर्भुज (viṣamacaturbhuja)

A quadrilateral with unequal sides; a cyclic quadrilateral

विषमत्रिभुज (viṣamatribhuja)

A Scalene triangle

विशेष (viśeṣa)

The difference between diagonal and the side of a square, especially when expressed in terms of the side

विष्कम्भचक्रवाल (viṣkambhacakravāla)

Ellipse

विष्कम्भ (viṣkambha)

Diameter

विष्कम्भदल (viṣkambhadala)

Semi-diameter, radius

विष्कम्भार्ध (viṣkambhārdha)

Semi-diameter, radius

विषुवद्दिन (viṣuvaddina)

The day of the equinox

विषुवद्दिनमध्याह्नच्छाया (viṣuvaddinamadhyāhnacchāyā

The equinoctial midday shadow

विषुवजीव (viṣuvajīva)

R sine of latitude

विषुवत् (विषुवत् वृत्त) (viṣuvat (viṣuvat vṛtta)

Celestial Equator

विस्तार (vistāra)

Length or breadth

विस्तृति (vistṛti)

Radius or diameter

वित्रिभ (vitribha)

Nonagesimal or the point of the ecliptic having a longitude 1° - 90° where 1 is the longitude of the point of intersection of the ecliptic with the horizon

विवर (vivara)

Difference

वियत् (viyat)

Zero

वृति (vṛti)

Perimeter

वृत्त (vṛtta)

1. Circle of its circumference. 2. Epicycle

वृत्तपरिधि (vṛttaparidhi)

Circumference of a circle

वृत्तपरिणाह (vṛttapariṇāha)

Circumference of a circle

व्यास (vyāsa)

1. Diameter. 2. (sometimes) radius. 3. Breadth

व्यासदल (vyāsadala)

Semi-diameter, radius

व्यासार्ध (vyāsārdha)

Semi-diameter, radius

व्यासयोजन (vyāsayojana)

Diameter in terms of yojanas

व्यतिपात (vyatipāta)

An astronomical phenomenon when the sum of the (true) longitudes of the Sun and the Moon amounts to half a circle (i.e.., 180° or 6 signs)

व्योम (vyoma)

Zero

याम्य (yāmya)

1. The south direction which is presided over by Yama. 2. The southern hemisphere (yāmyagola). 3. The nakṣatra, Bhariṇi that is presided over by Yama

याम्योत्तर (yāmyottaraa (yāmyottaravṛtta or yāmyottaramaṇḍala)

The local meridian

यावत्तावत् (yāvattāvat)

In algebra, an unknown quantity; abbr. as yā; (lit., as much as so much)

योग (yoga)

1. An interval of time during which the combined motions of the Sun and Moon add up to 13° 20'; (lit., sum) 2. Conjunction in longitudes of two heavenly bodies. 3. Addition

योगभाग (yogabhāga)

The degree of longitudes of the junction-stars

योगतारा (yogatārā)

Junction-stars, being the prominent stars of the twenty-seven nakṣatras used by the Hindu astronomers for the study of the conjunction of the planets, especially of the Moon with them.

योजन (yojana)

1. A unit of distance, probably somewhere between five and ten kilometres. 2. A unit of distance. 8000 × 4 cubits. The length of a yojana has differed at different times. The yojana of Āryabhaṭa I and Bhāskara I is roughly equivalent to 7½ miles

योजनकर्ण (yojanakarṇa)

The distance of a planet in terms of yojanas

योजनव्यास (yojanavyāsa)

The diameter in terms of yojanas

युग (yuga)

1. A calendar intercalation cycle. 2. A cosmological time interval, especially a mahāyuga. 3. A period of 4,320,000 years

युत (yuta)

Added; abbr. as yu in algebra

युति (yuti)

1. Union 2. Junction

शीज् (zīj)

(Arabic, Persian) A set of tables and algorithms for astronomical computation in Islamic science

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